It is very absurd to be a student of Nigeria, and don't know the stages that a bill must pass before it becomes a law in Nigeria. Well, i have thoroughly thought of it, and i think it is very pertinent for every student, to know the processes a bill must pass to become law in Nigeria. Thus, this is going to be really educative, as I am going to teach you all the processes of law making in Nigeria. So, lets get going!!


Legislation, which is also known as statute, is created by the parliament, which is the law making body in the country. At the national level, the lawmaking body of the country is made up of two parties; the house of senate and the the house of representative. The house of senate is the upper chamber, and the house of representative is the lower chamber.

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A bill is simply defined as a proposal requiring the deliberation of the legislature and the assent of the president to become a Law. Thus, before an act of the parliament becomes  a statute, it is known as a bill.

For a bill to become Law in Nigeria, it must pass through the following stages:

  1. First reading
  2. Second reading
  3. Committee stage
  4. Report stage
  5. Third reading
  6. Assent
  • First reading

This is the first stage in the process of law making in Nigeria. At this stage, the clerk of the lower house or any other official announces the bill,  giving only the title and the member introducing the bill.

  • Second reading

Immediately after the first reading, is the second reading. At this stage, the house will receive a copy of the bill and will be expected to read it and debate on it. After then, a vote will be casted to decide whether the bill will move to the next stage or not. 

  • Committee stage

At the committee stage, the bill will be taking to a special committee of member to critically and assiduously go through the bill. This is to enable them correct errors that may have been made in the bill.

  • Report stage

Now, the committee will have to report back to the house which the bill is passing through. The committee will provide details about the bill, and further amendment will be made by the house if any.

  • Third reading

When the bill gets to this stage, a final debate will be made on it,  and a vote is then taken. When there is a majority in favour, the bill passes from one house to the other, where a similar procedure takes place. 

  • Approval/Assent

When the bill has successfully passed the other house, it is then taken to the president for his assent. After the assent, the bill then turns into a Law (which is also called the act of the parliament).


If the president fails to give his assent to a bill, that bill will not become a Law except it is re-passed by Two Third of majority vote of the two legislative houses after, after which it automatically becomes a law.

Yes, that is everything you have to know about how law are made in Nigeria, and the various stages involved. I really recommend every government student to learn the above stages stages, as they are going to be of great importance some day.